02--Divorce:  Classics & Ancient Pieces with a Few on Marriage

An essay on marriage;  or, The lawfulness of divorce, in certain cases, considered:  addressed to the feelings of mankind.  Philadelphia, PA:  Printed by Zachariah Poulson, Jr., 1788.  28p.  Don’t you love it:  “addressed to the feelings of mankind”?  I’ll be Zechariah wrote it, too;  I’d like to hear his wife’s side (since she could not get published in 1788).

An essay upon divorcement;  writ for the good of both sexes, shewing the lawfulness and unlawfulness, the conveniences and inconveniences of divorces with a peremptory conclusion upon the fame, occasion'd by the debates in the House of Lords, the 3d of this instant, upon Sir Geo. Downing and Mrs. Forester, petitioning for a divorce, which will also be an answer to Mr. Shuttlewood's wedding sermon intitled, Marriages made in heaven.  London:  Printed for J. Baker, 1715.  42p.  Go ahead, laugh, I know you’re smiling.

Ariosto, Lodovico (1474-1533).  Orlando Furioso.  [Roland in a Mad Fury.]  Begun in 1505 and being revised from 1516 to 32.  One of the most influential poems of the Renaissance, an epic poem of huge proportions of loves, ladies, knights and arms.  Orlando goes mad from love, rage and jealously, which are fixed by the magic of a sorcerer, which in turn help him and the Christians fight pagans.  Much love and chivalry, with some mention of divorce.

Austen, Jane (1775-1817).  Sense and Sensibility.  Written in 1796, rewritten 1797-98, and published in 1811.  Story of love, indulgence, betrayal and divorce.

Austen, Jane (1775-1877).  Emma.  1815.  Persuasion.  1818.  Mansfield Park.  1819.  Heroines in these novels battle various marriage & morals problems including divorce with dignity and intelligence.

Bonald, Louis-Gabriel-Ambroise, vicomte de (1754-1840).  On Divorce.  Translated and edited by Nicholas Davidson;  foreword by Robert Nisbet.  English New Brunswick, U.S.A.:  Transaction Publishers, 1992.  204p.

Boswell, James (1740-1795).  The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D.  1791.  One of the greatest biographies.  Including the Earl of Macclesfield’s divorce (1697-98) and a few other comments on divorce.

Brown, Oliver Phelps.  The complete herbalist;  or, The people their own physicians, by the use of nature's remedies;  describing the great curative properties found in the herbal kingdom.  A new and plain system of hygienic principles, together with comprehensive essays on sexual philosophy, marriage, divorce.  Jersey City, NJ:  Pub. by the author, 1872.  504p.  Self-published:  why?

Browning, Robert (1812-1889).  The Ring and the Book.  1842.  An Italian murder trial recounted from several angles, in which a divorce has a part.  One of the longest poems in the English language, full of passion and exposition of psychological truth.

Bunny, Edmund (1540-1618).  Of divorce for adulterie, and marrying againe.  Amsterdam, Netherlands:  Theatrum Orbis Terrarum;  Norwood, NJ:  W.  J.  Johnson, 1976.  171p. 

Buxtorf, Johann.  Dissertatio de sponsalibus et divortiis.  Basileæ, sumptibus hæred:  Ludovici Regis, 1652.  Jewish rites, ceremonies, social life & divorce.  195p.

Byron, Lord George Noel Gordon (1788-1824).  Don Juan.  c1818-21.  A masterpiece of social satire, including a few divorces on the way.

Bythewood, Daniel.  An essay:  embracing, first, the divine authority of marriage, or the connubial rite:  secondly, the New Testament doctrine of divorce and marriage, with occasional inferences:  thirdly, human authorities, or uninspired writers, on the same subject, as we find them, here and there, interspersed in church history:  with brief reflections throughout, all of which, in view of the purity, chastity, and holiness, of the church of Christ.  Charleston:  W. Riley, 1837.  20p.  You’ve met him, haven’t you?

Castamore.  Adultery and the decline of marriage:  three tracts.  New York, NY:  Garland, 1984.  Reprint (1st work).  Originally published:  London:  Printed for Richard Baldwin, 1690.  Reprint (2nd work).  Originally published:  London:  Printed by R.  Roberts, 1700.

Cather, Willa Sibert (1873-1947).  The Song of the Lark.  1915.  The pull & struggle of domestic and marital duty as the issue of divorce grows stronger.

Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de (1547-1616).  The Interludes of Cervantes.  Translated from the Spanish Sylvanus Griswold Morley.  New York, NY:  Greenwood Press, 1969 (1st printed in 1948).  223p.  First scenario, “The judge of the divorce court.”

Chopin, Kate.  Madame Celestin’s Divorce.  1894.  8p.

Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106-43 B.C.).  The Offices.  44 B.C.  Translated by Thomas Cockman.  On the offices of a good person, Cicero encourages a standard above the law, commenting on the virtues of honesty even in divorce.

Code of Hammurabi.  c1780 B.C.  Translated by L. W. King.  Divorce optional for a man, but he had to restore dowry, she assumed custody of children, and he had to assign her an income.  But if she had been a bad wife, he could send her away with nothing or even degrade her to the position of slave.  She could be cause against him, and recover dowry;  but if she was proven a bad wife, she was drowned.  No action against the husband either way.

Cosci, Cristoforo.  Christophori Cosci De separatione tori coniugalis, tam nullo existente seu soluto, quam salvo vinculo matrimonii ejusque effectibus:  opus archiepiscopis, episcopis, judicibus ecclesiasticis ..  utilissimum cum summariis et indice locupletissimo.  De separatione tori coniugalis Florentiae:  Ex typis Magnae Ducalis Typographiae, 1856.  650p.

Cras, Henrik Constantijn (1739-1820).  Disputatio juridica de matrimonio ex sententiâ celebb.  Amstelaedami:  Apud Petrum den Hengst, 1799.  87p.  Including views of Immanuel Kant & Johann Gottlieb Fichte.

Crispin, Edmund (1921-1978).  The long divorce.  Westport, CT:  Greenwood Press, 1970 (1st 1951).  237p.  Harmondsworth;  New York, NY:  Penguin Books, 1981.  190p.  (1st 1951, 223p.)   Reprint of the ed. published by Dodd, Mead, New York, NY:  in series:  Red badge detective.

Darwin, Charles.  Descent of Man.  1871.  A couple of small sections in which marriage and divorce practices of various aboriginal tribes are described.

Deledda, Grazia (1871-1936).  After the divorce, a romance.  Translated from the Italian by Maria Hornor Lansdale.  New York, NY:  H. Holt, 1905.  341p.  Translated from the Italian by Susan Ashe;  with an introduction by Sheila Macleod.  London;  New York, NY:  Quartet Books, 1985.  174p.  Translated from the Italian by Susan Ashe.  Evanston, IL:  Northwestern University Press, 1995.  174p.

Dix, Dorothyi.  Illustrated by James A. Swinnerton.  Fables of the elite.  New York, NY:  R.F. Fenno & Company, 1902.  261p.  Animals dealing with social problems, including:  The bearess whose indifference charmed, The donkey who learned to kick, The hen who understood the game, The bearess who wanted a career, The elephantess who tried to be cute, The bear who was happy though married, The lion who knew it all, The donkey who admired his own perspicacity, The bears who solved the divorce problem, The bear who found nothing in economy.  The sketches originally appeared in the columns of The New York Journal.

Donnelly, Ian, ed.  Of wives and wiving:  a manual of instruction, exhortation & admonition gathered from older authors for the guidance, delight & moral fortification of contemporary readers.  Chicago:  H. Regnery Co., 1949.  83p.

Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan (1859-1930).  Sherlock Holmes:  The Adventure of the Devil’s Foot.  1910.  A character laments his love to a woman he could not marry, because his wife had left him and the “deplorable English laws” prevented him from divorcing his departed wife.

Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan (1859-1930).  Sherlock Holmes:  The Hound of the Baskervilles.  1901.  Intricate to the plot is a man’s offer to marry a woman, providing that she divorce.

Dreiser, Theodore (1871-1945).  Sister Carrie.  1900.  A man decieves and plans to divorce his wife to be with Caroline Meeber, or Sister Carrie.

Du Bois, Dorothea (Annesley).  The divorce.  London:  J. Wheble, 1771.  18p.

Dunning, William M., ed.  Domestic happiness portrayed; or, A repository for those who are, and those who are not married.  By the most classic authors, ancient and modern ... including two prize essays, together with several articles written expressly for this work.  New York:  C. Spalding, 1831.  428p.

Erasmus, Desiderius (d. 1536).  De matrimonio christiano, accessit Ludovici Vivis De conjugii origine & utilitate discursus.  First published in Basel, 1526, under title:  Christiani matrimonii institutio.  13p.  LOC.

Erasmus, Desiderius (d. 1536).  Déclamation des louenges de mariage, 1525.  Genève:  Droz, 1976.  247p.  Translation of Encomium matrimonii.

Erasmus, Desiderius (d. 1536).  Dilutio eorum quae Iodocus Clithoveus scripsit adversus declamationem Des. Erasmi Roterdami suasoriam matrimonii.  Introduction, texte et commentaires par Émile V. Telle.  Paris:  J. Vrin, 1968.  107p.

Euripides (484-406 B.C.).  Medea.  431 B.C.  Translated by E. P. Coleridge.  The woman, Medea is deserted by Jason, and her great love is turned into hatred by the betrayal.

Faulkner, William (1897-1962).  These thirteen.  Illustrated by Jerry Pinkney.  New York, NY:  J. Cape & H.  Smith, c.1931.  358p.  Franklin Center, PA:  Franklin Library, 1979 (1st 1931).  296p.  Including “Divorce in Naples.”

Fisher, Sydney George.  The cause of the increase of divorce.  Philadelphia, 1890.  20p.

France, Anatole [pseud. Of Jacques-Anatole François Thibault] (1844-1924).  Penguin Island.  1908.  Translated by A. W. Evans.  An epic allegorical & politcal satire, where penguins become men, where in small sub-plot in which a maiden wants a divorce.

Hardy, Thomas (1840-1928).  Jude the Obscure.  1896.  Hardy’s final novel, which caused an outcry.  Crossed love affairs force the issue of divorce.

Hardy, Thomas (1840-1928).  Tess of the D’Urbervilles.  1891.  Marriage, conflict and a bit of fatalism with a threat of divorce and great tragedy.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1804-1864).  The Scarlet Letter.  1850.  A classic that has had many prints under several houses and usually available at a local library.  The story is a sensitive account of Hester Prynne who had to wear the scarlet colored letter “A” for her adultery, who faced ostracism with courage, dignity and self-respect in a Puritan community.  A good story for a woman who has encountered shame in her divorce.

Jackman, Isaac (1776-1795).  The divorce, a farce:  as it is performed at the Theatre-Royal, Drury-Lane.  London:  G. Kearsly, 1781.  40p.

James, Henry (1843-1916).  One of the undisputed masters of modern literature and among the fisrt “cosmopolitan” novelists.  The Portrait of a Lady.  1881.  Isabel confronts her destiny, and at 28 years old we are left wondering whether she will ever divorce;  but we have seen her grow into an amazing astute woman who will draw a distinct line in a sand at sometime in the near future.  The Ambassadors.  1903.  James considered this his best work.  The marital tensions and obligations that ensue, among contemplations of divorce, but a man returns to his roots, having lived abroad he now knows truly “how” to live in virtue.

Kipling, Rudyard (1865-1936).  The Bronckhorst Divorce Case.  1888.  11p.

Lawrence, David Herbert (1885-1930).  Sons and Lovers.  1913.  Married life of the Morels, sometimes contemplating divorce.

Lawrence, William (c1613-1681).  Two great questions determined by the principles of reason & divinity:  I.  Whether the right to succession, in haereditary kingdoms, be eternal and unalterable? Neg.:  II.  Whether some certain politick reasons may not be sufficient grounds of divorce?  London:  Printed for Richard Janeway, 1681.  35p.

Lawrence, William (c1613-1681).  Two great questions determined by the principles of reason & divinity:  I.  Whether the right to succession, in haereditary kingdoms, be eternal and unalterable? Neg.:  II.  Whether some certain politick reasons may not be sufficient grounds of divorce?  London:  Printed for Richard Janeway, 1681.  35p.

London, Jack [JackGriffith] (1876-1916).  The Son of the Wolf.  1900.  Divorce mentioned in passing as a man, remarried to a native, contemplates her virtues and his longing for someone of his own kind.

Madan, Martin, 1726-1790.  Thelyphthora;  or, A treatise on female ruin, in its causes, effects, consequences, prevention, and remedy;  considered on the basis of the divine law:  under the following heads, viz. marriage, whoredom, and fornication, adultery, polygamy, divorce;  with many other incidental matters;  particularly including an examination of the principles and tendency of stat. 26 Geo. II c. 33. commonly called The marriage act.  2d ed.  London:  Printed for J. Dodsley, 1781.  3 volumes.  I have to find this somewhere, just to look through it—now own it.

Maugham, William Somerset (1874-1965).  Of Human Bondage.  1915.  Domestic troubles, infidelity & divorce, end in a most romantic marriage proposal.  The Moon and Sixpence.  1919.  Domestic ironies, infidelity and tragedy;  the origin of the quote:  “The mills of God grind slowly, but they grind exceeding small.”

Maupassant, Guy de.  Bel-Ami.  [Good Friend.]  Story of a Parisian rogue who conives, marries & divorces, not out of love but out of selfishness.

Melville, Herman (1819-1891).  Typee.  1846.  Fictional version of his visit to the Marquesas, area north of French Polynesia, in which he describes his exploits and the Typee people who have odd customs of marriage, ploygamy and divorce.

Mill, John Stuart (1806-1873).  The Subjection of Woman.  1869.  A historic and heroic defense for the equality of women with men by one of the most respected philosopher/economists of the time.

Milton, John (1608-1674).  The doctrine and disipline of divorce.  London:  Printed by T. P. and M. S., 1643.  48p.  London:  [n.p.] 1645.  82p.

Milton, John.  The doctrine and discipline of divorce:  in two books:  also the judgement of Martin Bucer;  Tetrachorden;  and an abridgement of colasterion.  London:  Printed for Sherwood, Neely and Jones, 1820.

Montaigne, Michel Eyquen de (1533-92).  Essays.  Translated by Charles Cotton.  1580-8, published posthumously in 1595.  Much commentary on varied issues, including a smattering on divorce.

O'Leary, A.  Demonology, or, Love, courtship and marriage, divorce and stirpiculture.  Chicago:  National Institute of Science, 1898.  317p.  I’ve got to see this to truly understand, because I’m sure I don’t from the title.

Olen, Stanley.  Screwed by lawyers and judges.  Chatham, NJ:  Olen, 1977.  136p.  I wonder what he thinks?  And I’m not sure just where to place this.

Plutarch (45-119 A.D.).  Alcibiades.  Translated by John Dryden.  75 A.D.  Hipparete attempted to divorce Alcibiades, but instead he carried her home.

Plutarch (45-119 A.D.).  Cicero.  Translated by John Dryden.  75 A.D.  Biography if Cicero, great Roman orator, his successes and troubles, including the divorce of his wife Terentia.

Plutarch (45-119 A.D.).  Pompey:  106-48 B.C.  Translated by John Dryden.  75 A.D.  The exploits of Pompey, who also divorced his wife for infidelity.

Plutarch (45-119 A.D.).  Sylla:  138-78 B.C.  Translated by John Dryden.  75 A.D.  The exploits of Lucius Cornelius Sylla, who also divorced and caused the divorce of many.

Poe, Edgar Allan (1809-1849).  The Oblong Box.  1844.  A married couple in the story hid their differences, which are clearly leading to divorce.

Pound, Ezra Loomis (1885-1972).  Moeurs Contemparaines:  From Poems from Lustra.  1918.  Poems of troubled lives, including Clara, twice divorced and lately in a convent.

Quran.  Surah 2:  The Cow;  Surah 33:  The Confederates;  Surah 65:  Divorce.

Raynal, Guillaume Thomas François.  Histoire du divorce de Henri VIII. roi d'Angleterre, et de Catherine d'Arragon.  Amsterdam, Netherlands:  [n.p.] 1763.  258p.

Rossi, Alice S., ed.  Essays on sex equality [by] John Stuart Mill [1906-73] & Harriet Taylor Mill [1807-58].  Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1970.  242p.  The story of John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor Mill.

Shakespeare, William (1564-1616).  King Henry the VIII.  1613.  Play about King Henry VIII’s divorce from Katharine in order to marry Anne Bullen.

Shaw, George Bernard (1856-1950).  Man and Superman:  A Comedy and a Philosophy.  1903.  A playwrite, literary and social critic, taking to task the social mores, including marriage and divorce, being especially adept at pointing out paradoxes and hypocrisy in a satirical manner.

Shirazi, Sheikh Muslih-uddin Sa’di.  The Gulistan of Sa’die.  1258.  Story 46 relates a short of how a rich man longed to see his ugly daughter marry, finally to a blind man;  then how the rich man refuses the healing of the blind man, lest he see and file divorce.

Tacitus, P. Cornelius (56-120 A.D.).  The Annals.  109 A.D.  Translated by Alfred John Church & William Jackson Brodribb.  Marriage & divorce are part of the burgeoning Roman empire.

The Cases of impotency and virginity fully discuss'd:  being the genuine proceedings, in the Arches-Court of Canterbury, between the Honourable Catherine Elizabeth Weld, alias Aston, and her husband Edward Weld, Esq., of Lulworth-Castle in Dorsetshire.  Published by John Crawfurd.  London:  Printed for Thomas Gammon, and sold by W. Mears, 1732.  79p.  What?  “Fully discuss’d”?  Or was it “disgusted”?

Tolstoy, Leo [Count Lev Nikolayevich] (1828-1910).  Anna Karenina.  1875-1877.  Translated by Constance Garnett.  Anna and Vronsky in extramarital love covert then openly conspire in Anna’s attempt to divorce.

Tolstoy, Leo [Count Lev Nikolayevich] (1828-1910).  War and Peace.  [Voyna i mir] 1862-1869.  One of the great novels of world literature set against Napoleon’s invasion, is epic in nature, but defies categorization because of its depth in charaterization, origanization, sociological and historical study.  Marital conflict, illegitimacy, love, domestic upset, the trouble/scandal of divorce and domestic tranquility all work themselves through this massive epic masterpiece.

Virgil (60-19 B.C.).  The Aeneid.  Translated by John Dryden.  19 B.C.  Roman epic.  Aeneas is shipwrecked, and Dido, queen of Carthage, falls for him.  She kills herself when Aeneas leaves.

Voltaire (1694-1778).  Fragment des instructions pour le prince royal de ***.  A Londres, Netherlands:  M. M.  Rey, 1767.  30p.  (the last leaf blank).  An attack on the Catholic Church for usurping the authority of rulers, including "Du divorce."

Wagner, Johann Georg (1718-1723).  Meditatio iuridica de divortio et convictus coniugalis separatione:  vulgo, Von der Scheidung zu Tisch und Bett.  Sumptibus Io. Christophori Krebsii, 1723.  76p.

Wallace, Lew.  Ben-Hur:  A Tale of the Christ.  1880.  First appearance of, “marriage is the first step to divorce,” from Massala to Judah.

Wharton, Edith (1862-1937).  Ethan Frome.  1911.  Through struggles of life, Ethan even contemplates leaving, then sees at last the true love of his Mattie.

Wilde, Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills (1854-1900).  Importance of Being Earnest.  1895.  Witty masterpiece in which several characters muse about various topics, developing the subtle topic of being “earnest” and briefly touching marriage, love and divorce.

Wollstonecraft, Mary.  Maria or theWrongs of a Woman.  1798.  “Wrongs of a woman” are the evil injustices perpetuated upon women by abusive men, and hence defense to divorce such a man.  But in that day, “what virtuous woman thought of her feelings?  It was her duty to love and obey the man chosen by her parents and relations, who were qualified by their experience to judge better for her, than she could for herself.”